Benner, Chris; Pastor, Manuel. Equity, Growth, and Community: What the Nation Can Learn form America’s Metro Areas, University of California Press: Oakland, California, 2015.

Cortright, Joe. (2015, June) City Report - Less in Common. City Observatory, 2015. Retrieved from

Cortright, Joe. (2014, December) City Report - Lost in Place. City Observatory, 2014. Retrieved from

Saez, Emmanuel Washington (2015, June 29) Center for Equitable Growth. Retrieved from




Ambrose, William M. Traction in the Blue Grass. Limestone Press: Lexington, Kentucky, 2007. 

Dunn, Frank C. Old Houses of Lexington, typescript, n.d., copy located in the Kentucky Room, Lexington (Kentucky) Public Library. 

Elsinger, Ellen, ed. Running Mad for Kentucky, Frontier Travel Accounts. University Press of Kentucky: Lexington, Kentucky, 2004.

Kimmerer, Tom. Venerable Trees, History, Biology, and Conservation in the Bluegrass. University Press of Kentucky: Lexington, Kentucky, 2015.

Langsam, Walter E. Kentucky Historic Resources Inventory (multiple entries). Lexington Fayette County Historic Commission: Lexington, Kentucky, 1980. 

Perrin, William Henry, ed. History of Fayette County, Kentucky. Southern Historical Press: Chicago, Illinois, 1882.

Raitz, Karl and Nancy O’Malley. Kentucky’s Frontier Highways, Historical Landscapes Along the Maysville Road. University Press of Kentucky: Lexington, Kentucky, 2012.

Wright, George C. Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865-1940. LSU Press: Baton Rouge, Louisiana: 1996.



United States Census Bureau. 2010 Census.U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Web. 1 August 2016. Retrieved from:

United States Census Bureau.“Summary File.”2007 – 2014 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey Office, 2014. Web. 1 August 2014. Retrieved from:



Culture & Assets

John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Soul of the Community. Retrieved from (August 13, 2016)

McKnight, John & Kreztmann, John. Building Communities from the Inside Out, ACTA Publications, Chicago, Ill.



The City of Portland. The Portland Plan. (August 13, 2016)



Cortright, Joe and Mahmoudi, Dillan. May 2014. Older, Smaller, Better: Measuring how the character of buildings and blocks influences urban vitality.

Fairlie, Robert W., Ph. D. and Robb, Alicia M., Ph.D. January 2010. Disparities in Capital Access between Minority and Non-Minority-Owned Businesses: The Troubling Reality of Capital Limitations Faced by MBEs.


Food Access

Treuhaft, Sarah and Karpyn, Allison. 2010. The Grocery Gap: Who Has Access to Healthy Food and Why it Matters. 

University of Kentucky, Department of Geography. 2014. Atlas for a Community Mapshop.



Public Space

Congress for New Urbanism. The Charter of the New Urbanism. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Rutherford, Linda. Project for Public Spaces. Why Public Places are the Key to Transforming our Communities. May 13, 2014. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Rosenberger, Robert. The Atlantic. How Cities Use Design to Drive Away Homeless People. June 19, 2014. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Low, Setha & Smith, Neil (ed.), 2006, The Politics of Public Space, Routledge, New York.

Toloudi, Zenovia. The Huffington Post. Are We In The Midst Of A Public Space Crisis? June 8, 2016. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Eblen, Tom. Lexington Herald-Leader. ‘Lord’ Morton left a legacy worth celebrating. May 24, 2010. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016) Cassius Marcellus Clay. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Project for Public Spaces Streets as Places: How Transportation Can Create a Sense of Community. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Hart, Joshua. June 6, 2011. Driven To Excess:Impacts Of Motor Vehicle Traffic On Residential Quality Of Life In Bristol, UK. 

Montgomery, Charles. Happy City, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux: New York, New York, 2013

Benner, Chris; Pastor, Manuel. Equity, Growth, and Community: What the Nation Can Learn form America’s Metro Areas, University of California Press: Oakland, California, 2015.

Zarghami, Esmaeil, AzhdehFar, Shirin , Fallah, Saeed Toodeh. Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism. Volume 5, Issue 3: 134-143; May 25, 2015. The Relationship between Urban Sidewalks Design and Psychological Sense of Security

Draper, Carrie & Freedman, Darcy. Journal of Community Practice, 18:4, 458-492. Review and Analysis of the Benefits, Purposes, and Motivations Associated with Community Gardening in the United States

Wood, Carly; Pretty, Jules; Griffin, Murray. Journal of Public Health. 2015. A case–control study of the health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening

Twiss,  Joan; Dickinson, Joy; Duma, Shirley; Kleinman, Tanya; Paulsen, Heather; and Rilveria, Liz. American Journal for Public Health. 2003 September. Community Gardens: Lessons Learned From California Healthy Cities and Communities.

Voicu, Ioan and Been, Vicki. Real Estate Economics, 2008 V36 2: pp. 241–283. The Effect of Community Gardens on Neighboring Property Values.

Markham, Lauren. The New Yorker. May 21, 2014. Gentrifciation and the Urban Garden. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

New York City Department of Planning. Privately Owned Public Spaces. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)


Creativity & Art

Becker, Jack. Americans for the Arts: Monograph. March 2004. Public Art: An Essential Component of Creating Communities

Cameron Stuart and Coaffee, John. European Journal of Housing Policy Vol. 5, No. 1, 39–58, April 2005. Art, Gentrification and Regeneration -- From Artist as Pioneer to Public Arts.

Lum, Ken. Penn Institute for Urban Research. November 20, 2014. Some Reflections on Urban Public Art Today. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

O’Neal, Lonnie. The Washington Post / Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 2, 2013. NEA head, Rocco Landesman, found money in new places.

Forecast Public Art. Public Art Toolkit. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Flax-Clark, Aiden. The Aspen Institute. October 31, 2014. Creative Placemaking: What it is and Why it’s Important for Communities. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Markusen, Ann and Gadwa, Anne. Markusen Economic Research Services and Metris Arts Consulting, 2010. Creative Placemaking.

Nicodemus, Anne Gadwa. April 5, 2013. Artists and Gentrification: Sticky Myths, Slippery Realities. Retrieved from: (August 13, 2016)

Grodach, Carl; Foster, Nicole; & Murdoch, James III. University of Texas at Arlington. Gentrification and the Artistic Dividend: The Role of the Arts in Neighborhood Change.



Forrest, Ray & Kearns Ade. Journal of Urban Studies, November 2001 vol. 38 no. 12 2125-2143. Social Cohesion, Social Capital and the Neighbourhood.

McCann, Eugene. Antipode, April 1999. Race, protest, and public space: contextualizing Lefebvre in the U.S. city